Diet for chronic kidney disease

When you have chronic kidney disease, diet is an important part of your treatment plan. Dietary treatment sometimes can be extremely complicated in coexisting diseases like diabetes and may changes over time depending on the functional status of the kidney. However, a proper diet plan recommended by a dietician or kidney specialist can help the patient manage the condition better and lead a better life.

Diet for kidney/renal disease is intended to reduce the amount of excretory workload by the kidneys and help them maintaining fluid, acid-base and electrolyte balance. It is essential that these patients receive sufficient calorie unless they are overweight. Energy requirements should be fulfilled by carbohydrate and fat. The fats should be unsaturated (good fat) to prevent hyperlipidemia (high level of lipid/fat). Most frequently protein is restricted as the protein increases the amount of Nitrogen waste which the kidney must handle.

Restriction of sodium or salt intake is ordered if there is edema (swelling in the leg) and hypertension (high blood pressure). Foods like potato, tomato, dates, mango, beet, carrot, spinach, pumpkin, citrus fruits, banana and dry fruits contain Potassium and hence these may be restricted in some patients because there is high level of Potassium in end stage renal disease (ESRD).

Excess Potassium can cause cardiac arrest. One precaution here is — patients with ESRD should not use salt substitute to avoid sodium because the sodium in these products are replaced with Potassium.

High Phosphorus found in protein rich food such as dairy products, meat, legumes, nut and seeds as well as whole grain is another mineral which needs to be limited.

Patients with kidney disease often have an increased need for Calcium, vitamins B, C and D and supplements are often given. Iron is commonly prescribed because anemia frequently develops in patients with kidney disease.

Fluid intake is regulated after monitoring the fluid status by regularly checking the weight and comparing it to the weight immediately following a dialysis session.

Diet during dialysis: Dialysis patients may need additional protein, but the amount must be carefully controlled to prevent the accumulation of protein waste between treatments. Potassium is usually restricted for dialysis patients. A typical renal diet could be written as “80-3-3” which means 80 gm protein, 3 gm sodium and 3 gm potassium a day. Usually a diet contains 3 gm of sodium, which is the equivalent of a no added salt diet. Sodium and salt requirement could increase with perspiration, vomiting, fever and diarrhoea.

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The writer is Chief Dietician, Dietetics and Nutrition Department, United Hospital Ltd.
Source: The Daily Star, April 30, 2011

17 comments

  1. This is a very good side for proper maintaining of the health. I hope it will be developed day by day. I want to know can a CKD patient take date(khejur) and light warm lemon water in empty stomach for constipation problem?

    1. কিডনি সমস্যা হলে পটাশিয়াম এবং প্রোটিন সমৃদ্ধ খাবার এড়িয়ে চলতে হয়। খেজুরে পটাশিয়ামের মাত্রা অধিক–এটা এড়িয়ে চলতে হবে। লেবু চলতে পারে।

    1. না, এতে প্রচুর ম্যাগনেশিয়াম থাকে বিধায় কিডনি জটিলতায় ভুগলে এটা না খাওয়াই ভালো।

      1. কিডনি রোগীর রক্তে পটাশিয়ামের কমে গেলে শুকনো খেজুর খাওয়া ভাল কি?

  2. I am 57 years old and a CKD patient. My potassium level is 2.3 Can I take Coconut water for improvement of potassium level ?

    1. ডাবের পানিতে পটাশিয়ামের লেভেল খুবই হাই। আপনার মাত্রাটা কম বলে আপনি চাইলে ডাবের পানি খেতে পারেন, তবে খুবই অল্প পরিমানে।

  3. আমি কি খাব আর কি খাব না তার পুরা চাট, কিভাবে পাব

    1. হ্যাঁ পারেন। ফুলকপির পাশাপাশি বাধাকপিতেও সমস্যা নেই।

  4. Pr. / Dr. Subho Roy
    Can u tell me what is the present status of Artificial Kidney. 01/02/2019

    Rate of Artificial Kidney of I.N.R. == ?????

    1. ডায়েট একটা অহেতুক জিনিস। কারণ এটা হুবহু ফলো করা সম্ভব হয় না। এর চেয়ে যেসব খাবারে সমস্যা সেগুলো ডাক্তারের পরামর্শ মেনে এড়িয়ে চলবেন। আর অবশ্যই কম কম খাবেন। একবারে বেশি খাবেন না।

  5. Poty ta somossa Hoche… Dialysis Er sub channel a pain hoche… Pressure high low Hoche Plz janaben…

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